Tuesday, January 31, 2012

NRF2011-EDU001-EL001 Java Simulation Design for Teaching and Learning Research

NRF2011-EDU001-EL001 Java Simulation Design for Teaching and Learning Research
Project Title: Java Simulation Design for Teaching and Learning
Learning Designers: Wee Loo Kang, Matthew Ong, Lye Sze Yee



09March version 5 after Mat and Sze Yee

Project Objective/s*
Research Scope#
Data Collection
General Researchable Problem/s
General Research Question/s
Type of data
Method / Instruments
This project seeks to further students’ inquiry learning through appropriate use of customized computer models thereby improving students’ understanding of abstract concepts in Physics.

This project’s key pedagogical method is the guided 1) inquiry approach, with guiding worksheets and skilful teachers’ facilitation, using 2) customized with appropriate design features in the computer models. The goal is to create student-centric education to enable scientific investigation-inquiry on the computer models and propose/deduce physics concepts in agreement with the evidence/data collected in the computer models and/or the real world.
The use of guided inquiry approach with customized computer models can improve students’ understanding of abstract Physics concepts.
1) What are the inquiry learning principles (eg. level of challenging tasks, level of teacher facilitation, types of questions to promote thinking about) that have surface from the design in their activity worksheets and implementation of their lessons?

2) What are the design features (eg. suitable user interface and design layout, abstract concepts programmed into the model, kinds of representations that support learning, what assessment for learning could be design to further learning) of the computer model that  address those specific abstract concepts in the 5 lesson packages?

Artifacts of learning such as student’s worksheets.

Quantitative short term Test scores 

Qualitative short term Test responses

Qualitative survey, Interviews and focus group discussions


Longer term data such as CA, SA scores specific to the abstract concepts
Photo-copy of selected students’ worksheet that can serve to support our research claim.


Collect back test paper


Collect back test paper



1. google form survey with reflections and 5 likert scale responses.
2. post interviews
3. Discussions with Teachers

Photo-copy of selected students’ CA and SA questions answered and some data on learning gains is longer term





09 March 2012 version 4

Project Objective/s*
Research Scope#
Data Collection
General Researchable Problem/s
General Research Question/s
Type of data
Method / Instruments
Time frame
This project’s key pedagogical method is the guided 1) inquiry approach, with guiding worksheets and skilful teachers’ facilitation, using 2) customized with appropriate design features in the computer models. The goal is to create student-centric education to enable scientific investigation-inquiry on the computer models and propose/deduce physics concepts in agreement with the evidence/data collected in the computer models and/or the real world.
1) What are the inquiry learning principles (level of challenging tasks, level of teacher facilitation, types of questions to promote thinking about etc) that the teachers have learnt from the design in their activity worksheets and implementation of their lessons?



2) What are the design features (suitable user interface and design layout, difficult concepts programmed into the model, kinds of representations that support learning, what assessment for learning could be design to further learning, etc) of the computer model the teachers have been implemented and found useful to address those specific difficult concepts in the 5 lesson packages?

Artifacts of learning such as student’s worksheets.






Quantitative short term Test scores 

Qualitative short term Test responses

Qualitative survey, Interviews and focus group discussions








Longer term data such as CA, SA scores specific to the difficult concepts
Photo-copy of selected students’ worksheet that can serve to support our research claim.


Collect back test paper


Collect back test paper



1. google form survey with reflections and 5 likert scale responses.
2. post interviews
3. Discussions with Teacher

Photo-copy of selected students’ CA and SA questions answered and some data on learning gains is longer term
Quarterly


version 1 to 3

Project Objective/s*
Research Scope#
Data Collection
General Researchable Problem/s
General Research Question/s
Type of data
Method / Instruments
Time frame
This project seeks to further students’ inquiry learning through appropriate use of computer models with multiple representations thereby improving students’ understanding of abstract concepts in Physics.

This project’s key pedagogical method is the guided inquiry approach through customized computer models, worksheets and skilful teacher facilitation, to enable students to conduct scientific investigation-inquiry on the computer models and propose/deduce physics concepts in agreement with the evidence/data collected in the computer models. 
The use of multiple representations with a guided inquiry approach  can improve students’ understanding of abstract Physics concepts
How does the use of multiple representations through guided inquiry improve students’ understanding of Physics concepts?
Quantitative Tests score
pre and post for experimental research

post score for case studies research

Qualitative
Interviews and focus group discussions
1. post surveys and reflection forms
2. post interviews
3. Students’ class work, worksheet
4. Teacher’s reflections and interviews
Quarterly



Project Objective/s*
This project seeks to further students’ inquiry (McDermott, Shaffer, & Rosenquist, 1995) learning through appropriate use of computer models with multiple representations (Gilbert, 2010) (world, scientific and symbolic) thereby improving students’ understanding of abstract concepts in Physics.
This project’s key pedagogical method is the guided (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006) inquiry approach through customized computer models (Wee & Mak, 2009), worksheets (pen paper and/or online) and skilful teacher facilitation (Wu, Hsu, & Hwang, 2008). This enables students to conduct scientific investigation-inquiry on the computer models (Christian, Esquembre, & Barbato, 2011) (and the real world) and propose/deduce physics concepts in agreement with the evidence/data collected in the computer models or/and real world.
The secondary pedagogical method is constructionism or learn-by-making of computer models lead by RVHS on a small group of secondary 3 students using existing Easy Java Simulation (Ejs) toolkit within during curriculum space of 1 year project based learning.
Researchable Problem/s
The use of multiple representations (Gilbert, 2010; Wong, Sng, Ng, & Wee, 2011) with a guided inquiry approach (Kirschner, et al., 2006) can improve students’ understanding of abstract Physics concepts

Key Research Question/s
How does the computer model design such as (user interface, multiple representation) use of multiple representations and guided inquiry (worksheet task challenge, information presentation, thinking questions) facilitate improve students’ understanding of Physics concepts?

Type of data
Quantitative Tests score

pre and post for experimental research
post score for case studies research

Qualitative
Interviews and focus group discussions


Method / Instruments

1. post surveys and reflection forms
2. post interviews (focus group discussion FGD) (tat leong 5th march 2012)
3. Students’ class work, worksheet
4. Teacher’s reflections and interviews
5. video recording with interaction with computer model and conservation with students-teacher-student. (tat leong 5th march 2012)
6. lesson study to observe ah-ha moments (tat leong 5th march 2012)


Time frame
Quarterly

reference:
Christian, W., Esquembre, F., & Barbato, L. (2011). Open Source Physics. Science, 334(6059), 1077-1078. doi: 10.1126/science.1196984
Gilbert, J. K. (2010). The role of visual representations in the learning and teaching of science: An introduction. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 11(1).
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
McDermott, L., Shaffer, P., & Rosenquist, M. (1995). Physics by inquiry: John Wiley & Sons New York.
Wee, L. K., & Mak, W. K. (2009, 02 June). Leveraging on Easy Java Simulation tool and open source computer simulation library to create interactive digital media for mass customization of high school physics curriculum. Paper presented at the 3rd Redesigning Pedagogy International Conference, Singapore.
Wong, D., Sng, P. P., Ng, E. H., & Wee, L. K. (2011). Learning with multiple representations: an example of a revision lesson in mechanics. Physics Education, 46(2), 178.
Wu, H.-K., Hsu, Y.-S., & Hwang, F.-K. (2008). Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Technology in Classrooms: Does School Size Matter? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6(1), 63-85. doi: 10.1007/s10763-006-9061-8

Saturday, January 28, 2012

Bill Gates' 11 Rules of Life

i wish i learn this in school. :)
Bill Gates' 11 Rules of Life

BILL GATES' SPEECH TO MT. WHITNEY HIGH SCHOOL in Visalia, California.

Love him or hate him, he sure hits the nail on the head with this!

To anyone with kids of any age, here's some advice. Bill Gates recently gave a speech at a High School about 11 things they did not and will not learn in school. He talks about how feel-good, politically correct teachings created a generation of kids with no concept of reality and how this concept set them up for failure in the real world.

Rule 1: Life is not fair -- get used to it! i say get even. Turn the emotion into positive energy and work done. Look at all the physics models i helped to remixed. Though you may not be as rewarded in your job as you think you should be, i agree with Bill on this, do what make you happy.

Rule 2: The world won't care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself.

Rule 3: You will NOT make $60,000 a year right out of high school. You won't be a vice-president with a car phone until you earn both.

Rule 4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss.

Rule 5: Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your Grandparents had a different word for burger flipping -- they called it opportunity.

Rule 6: If you mess up, it's not your parents' fault, so don't whine about your mistakes, learn from them.

Rule 7: Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes and listening to you talk about how cool you thought you are. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parent's generation, try delousing the closet in your own room. i say respect your parents!

Rule 8: Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life HAS NOT. In some schools they have abolished failing grades and they'll give you as MANY TIMES as you want to get the right answer. This doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING in real life.

Rule 9: Life is not divided into semesters. You don't get summers off and very few employers are interested in helping you FIND YOURSELF. Do that on your own time. i am a designer of physics computer models and it makes me happy to contribute to the betterment of the world.

Rule 10: Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually have to leave the coffee shop and go to jobs.

Rule 11: Be nice to nerds. Chances are you'll end up working for one. i am always nice.

reference:
http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bl_bill_gates_speech.htm
https://fbcdn-sphotos-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/s320x320/390039_2655866550415_1068373447_2835639_1973018463_n.jpg

Friday, January 27, 2012

Research design study by IJC computer model ripple tank eduLab

Proposal for action research on the study of using computer model (ripple tank) in understanding superposition
EJS computer model ripple tank by lookang, derived work from andrew duffy

Quantitative Study
Hypothesis:
The use of computer model (ripple tank) in the learning of superposition may improve students’ understanding through (1) multiple representational visualizations and (2) guided inquiry pedagogy.
Independent variable:
  1. Use of teacher created EJS computer model in superposition with pedagogical features that enhance multiple representations and guided inquiry learning
Dependent variable:
  1. Students’ understanding deepened that probably may be measured through
    1. (short term gains) Interviews, surveys, students’ worksheet
    2. (longer term transfer of performance gains) such as
                                                               i.      Class test
                                                             ii.      Common Test
                                                            iii.      Academic performance  in summative exam

Experimental Group: Tutorial + EJS (practical guided -inquiry approach (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006))
It is not a easy task to have control group (Norvig, 2006)  we should instead focus in ways to improve learning experience or pedagogy  (Ernest H. Joy II & Federico E. Garcia, 2000) rather than spend unproductive efforts for some of the following reasons
·         Humans are intelligent and can render the (experimental-control group) research design valid-less by doing things purposely to establish false outcomes in learning
·         Warning signs in experimental design and interpretation such as to keep the control group equal is L1R5 equal to experimental group and teach poorly in control group etc.
For discussion please.

Qualitative study
General Question: How has the use of computer model (ripple tank)  helps you in understanding the concepts of superposition?
Specific Questions:
  1. How has computer model (ripple tank)  helped in you in understanding the concept of path difference, phase difference between the two sources and the graphical representation of the resultant wave?
  2. What learning features do you feel deepen learning in the computer model (ripple tank)?
  3. How can computer model (ripple tank)  be improved to help you understand the principle of superposition due to two waves?

Reference:
  1. Ernest H. Joy II, & Federico E. Garcia. (2000). Measuring learning effectiveness: A new look at no-significant-difference findings. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 4(1), 33-39.
  2. Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
  3. Norvig, P. (2006). Warning Signs in Experimental Design and Interpretation Retrieved 27 January 2012, from Warning Signs in Experimental Design and Interpretation


Thursday, January 26, 2012

Micrometer with NJC 307

mirror here https://sites.google.com/site/lookang/002-micrometer?pli=1




actual lesson with Ning @NJC
A lesson ( 90 minutes ) designed by lookang and ning (NJC), blended the strengths o
actual picture of micrometer taken by lookang
  1. real equipment, (learning about the real world)
  2. computer model (learning transform by technology)
  3. Google form (learning feedback immediately during lesson)
actual lesson with Ning @NJC


enjoy!


Engage - Big Idea(s).
  • accurate measurement allow the understanding of physical rules,
    example Newton used accurate data collected by earlier scientists, where
    Newton's contribution was achieved "standing upon the shoulders of
    Giants". MOE. (2011)
  • more accurate measurement can be made clever ways to sub-divide and magnify the smallest division.


Explore: Below is a computer model of the micrometer, freely explore it :)  Be sure to refer to the real instrument going around the class to associated real equipment and computer model. 


>
Full screen kindly hosted in NTNUJAVA Virtual Physics Laboratory by Professor Fu-Kwun Hwang http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=683.0
Author of computer model: lookang and Fu-Kwun


Description of Micrometer

Micrometers use the principle of a screw to amplify small distances that are too small to measure directly into large rotations of the screw that are big enough to read from a scale.
The accuracy of a micrometer derives from the accuracy of the thread form that is at its heart. The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows:

computer model by lookang and fu-kwun
The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice-versa), through the constant known as the screw's lead. A screw's lead is the distance it moves forward axially with one complete turn (360°). (In most threads [that is, in all single-start threads], lead and pitch refer to essentially the same concept.)

With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw, a given amount of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential movement.

The micrometer has most functional physical parts of a real micrometer.

Frame (Orange)

The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is thick because it needs to minimize expansion, and contraction, which would distort the measurement. The frame is heavy and consequently has a high thermal mass, to prevent substantial heating up by the holding hand/fingers. has a text 0.01 mm for smallest division of instrument has a text 2 rounds = 100 = 1.00 mm to allow association to actual micrometer

Anvil (Gray)

The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against.

Sleeve / barrel / stock (Yellow)

The stationary round part with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings.

Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock (Blue)

The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as when momentarily holding a measurement.

Screw

(not seen) The heart of the micrometer It is inside the barrel.

Spindle (Dark Green)

The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil.

Thimble (Green)

The part that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings.

Ratchet (Teal)

(not shown ) Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque.

This applet has an object (Black)

with slider on left top to control the y-motion of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws), the graphics also allows drag action.

with slider on left bottom to control the x-size of the object into the anvil and spindle (jaws).

On the left bottom slider is the zero error control to allow of exploring with if the micrometer has either +0.15 mm (max) or -0.15mm (min) zero error. The are check boxes:

hint: guide lines and arrows to indicate the region of interest plus the accompanying rationale for the answer.

answer: shows the measurement d = ??? mm

lock: allows simulating of the lock function in real micrometer which disable changes to the position of the spindle then by the measurement is unchangeable.

On the bottom there is a green slider to control the position of the spindle, drag on any part of the view also drags the spindle.

There is 2 buttons left and right fine control to allow for single incremental change of the measurement, to allow learners to sense the rotation simulation of the spindle with the many lines to simulate the coarse pattern to increase friction between fingers and on the thimble and ratchet.

The reset button restores learning environment to default setting.


Guided Explore - Teacher Time:
Demonstration of how to use a real micrometer, via a visualizer ( 5 minutes ).
YouTube will be available after lesson





Guided Explore - Teacher Time:

Demonstration of how to use a computer model of micrometer via computer lab ( 10 minutes).  YouTube will be available after lesson





Initial zero


picture of 0.00 mm, notice the reference pointer on the main scale (yellow) and the micrometer scale (green) is 0.00 mm when the jaws is just closed


notice the reference pointer on the main scale (yellow) and the micrometer scale (green) is 0.00 mm when the jaws is just closed.

note common error(s)

  • students may look at the number as shown but the way to understand this is to look at the actual gap in-between the jaws is
    zero when the top main scale 0 mm meets to the vernier scale 0.0 mm.
  • also take note that 2 rounds cover the distance or length of 1.00 mm

Example of a measurement 2.40 mm

Steps to follow to use the computer model
  • reset the computer model
  • select the check-boxes
    • hint to show tips where to look at
    • answer gives the correct answer.
  • Type in your value! allows students to test their understanding like a game!
    • notice the importance of precision from the game, for example
      the measurement is 2.40 mm, to say an object is 2.4 mm is not the same as 2.40 mm because of the degree of certainty (how sure we are
      about the length, in this case). but neither can we say 2.4000 mm as it
      is not possible to tell to that degree of precision!



Explain:








on the left is a possible pen paper question about micrometer scale
reading, the right is a computer model screen capture of the same
length.





Q1: What is the reading of the micrometer shown in mm?

 

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?hl=en_US&hl=en_US&key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdFhUcVZyalBkbU83RzZNTVFOZkNKclE&output=html

Summary of responses Q1

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdFhUcVZyalBkbU83RzZNTVFOZkNKclE&hl=en_US&gridId=0#chart








Play with the Micrometer (Real being passed around) as well as the Computer Model until you get the good idea of how the micrometer works!

do not process until you have understood this micrometer without zero error.










Initial zero


with a positive zero error, for example 0.03 mm





When the jaws are just closed actual distance is d = 0.00 mm, notice the reference pointer on the main scale (yellow) and the
vernier scale (green) is 0.03 mm when the jaws is just closed. This is called zero error.


note common mistake(s)

  • notice the reading is 0.03 mm instead of the actual distance of 0.00 mm, this is called zero error.





















































Example of a measurement 3.87 mm


Steps to follow to use the computer model
  • to open the micrometer jaws, move the green slider or the step <> buttons for single step fine control

  • drag the black object to be measure down into the jaws by sliding the slider on the left side of the computer model

  • select the check-boxes

    • hint to show tips where to look at

    • answer gives the correct answer.
  • Type in your value! allows students to test their understanding like a game!
  • notice is this case, the zero error was = 0.03 mm, the apparent
    reading is 3.00 + 0.90  = 3.90 mm. But because of the zero error = 0.03 mm, the
    correct reading should be

    • 5.00 + 0.90 - (0.03) = 3.87 mm













































Q2: What is the micrometer zero error reading shown in the diagram?





























on the left is a possible pen paper question about micrometer scale
reading, the right is a computer model screen capture of the same zero error meaning.


Summary of responses Q2

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdG03ZEMyTWc1UHJoeE5UdllTVEVFaEE&hl=en_US#chart





Initial zero with a negative zero error, for example - 0.01 mm






When the jaws are just closed, notice the reference pointer on the main scale (yellow) and the
vernier scale (green) is -0.01 mm when the jaws is just closed.


note common mistake(s)

  • notice the reading is -0.01 mm instead of the actual distance of 0.00 mm, this is called zero error.


























































Example of a measurement 3.87 mm


Steps to follow to use the computer model
  • select the external measurement radio button to activate an object to measure
  • select the check-boxes

    • hint to show tips where to look at

    • answer gives the correct answer.
  • Type in your value! allows students to test their understanding like a game!
  • notice is this case, the zero error was = - 0.01 mm, the apparent
    reading is 3.00 + 0.86 mm. But because of the zero error = - 0.10 mm, the
    correct reading should be

    • 3.00 + 0.86 - (-0.10) = 3.87 mm











































Q3: what is the correct reading on the micrometer given it has a zero error of - 0.03 mm?




































































on the left is a possible pen paper question about micrometer scale
reading, the right is a computer model screen capture of the same zero error meaning.



https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdGJoQ05TT2Z5eHdrLU1keU41M2RwSWc&hl=en_US

Summary of responses Q3

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdGJoQ05TT2Z5eHdrLU1keU41M2RwSWc&hl=en_US#chart




Elaborate:

Now extends your conceptual understanding and practice
the new skills and understanding to

  • click reset and test your understanding on one measurement with zero error =  0.00 mm
  • click reset and test your understanding on one measurement with zero error = + 0.15 mm
  • click reset and test your understanding on one measurement with zero error = - 0.09 mm

any reflections or questions that help you to develop deeper and broader understanding of micrometer concepts?

Summary reflections



Through these new experiences, develop
deeper and broader understanding of micrometer concepts, and refine
your skills and understanding. Remember to look and play with the real
equipment ans check that it is applicable to the real life.




Evaluate:

Describe how this is a better design than the vernier caliper that allow the measurement of a measurement to 0.01 mm precision?





https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdGw3bkptMDlHclNUVkpNc1NFdmJwZmc&hl=en_US

write down is the paragraph google form the a generalization or formula that can be used for all such measurement involving the terms

1. main scale reading

2. vernier or micrometer scale reading

3. zero error 



https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/gform?key=0AjIvSg-TzZrZdHhxQU9mTFQ2aml6LWpYaHlCbEhpaHc&hl=en_US

















Reference:

Hwang, F.-K., & Wee, L. K. (2012). Ejs open source Micrometer java applet with objects, help & zero error logic Retrieved from http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=683.0

Hwang, F.-K., & Wee, L. K. (2009). Micrometer Model. Retrieved from http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=9422&DocID=1315

MOE. (2011). Handbook for Teaching
Secondary Physics C. Y. Lau, D. J. S. Wong, C. M. K. Chew & J. K. S.
Ong (Eds.),   Retrieved from http://subjects.edumall.sg/subjects/slot/u1025854/Handbook%20for%20Teaching%20Secondary%20Physics.pdf

Bybee, R. W., Taylor, J. A., Gardner, A., Westbrook, A., & Landes,
N. (2006). The BSCS 5E instructional model: origins and effectiveness.
Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/houseofreps.nsf/b82d55fa138783c2852572c9004f5566/$FILE/Appendix%20D.pdf